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Calling someone a kaafir, takfeer of a child

Fatwaa ID: 1251

Question:
Assalamu alaykum, does making takfeer of a muslim constitute kufr for the one making the takfeer? And if so, then will making takfeer of the child of a muslim also result in kufr for the one making the takfeer?

Assalamu alaykum. maaf, but please answer, as I may have to make up a salah.

Answer:
In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh.

  1. At the outset, making takfeer is not a simple thing. It is a very detrimental thing and must be avoided by the laitie and even the general scholars. It should be left to the competent and well-versed scholars. Nevertheless, calling a Muslim kaafir does not constitute kufr. However, the one making takfeer will be gravely sinful if the other person is not entitled to it.
  2. Why would anyone in their right mind make takfeer of a child? Something is definitely wrong with him and he should check himself. See the above.
  3. Your salaah was valid behind such a person. You do not need to repeat it.

And Allaah Ta’aala knows best.
Mufti Muajul I. Chowdhury
Darul Iftaa New York
https://askthemufti.us/

وصل اللهم وسلم وبارك على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وصحبه أجمعين


مرقاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح (7/3027)
4815 – (ﻭﻋﻦ اﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ – ﺭﺿﻲ اﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ – ﻗﺎﻝ: ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ اﻟﻠﻪ ﺻﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ: ” ﺃﻳﻤﺎ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻗﺎﻝ: ﻛﺎﻓﺮ) ﺑﻀﻢ اﻟﺮاء ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺒﻨﺎء، ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺩﻯ ﺣﺬﻑ ﺣﺮﻑ ﻧﺪاﺋﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﻣﻴﺮﻙ، ﻭﻳﺆﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺟﺎء ﻓﻲ ﺭﻭاﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺪاء، ﻭﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺑﺘﻨﻮﻳﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺧﺒﺮ ﻣﺤﺬﻭﻑ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻩ ﺃﻧﺖ ﺃﻭ ﻫﻮ (ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﺎء ﺑﻬﺎ) ﺃﻱ: ﺭﺟﻊ ﺑﺈﺛﻢ ﺗﻠﻚ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ (ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ) : ﻭﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ اﻟﺘﺰﻣﻬﺎ ﻭﺭﺟﻊ ﺑﻬﺎ اﻩـ، ﻭﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻧﺴﺦ اﻟﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﺢ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻱ: ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻔﺮ، ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﺫﻛﺮﻩ اﺑﻦ اﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﺤﺚ، ﺑﻞ اﻷﻭﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺑﺈﺛﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ اﻟﻘﻮﻝ اﻟﻤﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ، ﺃﻣﺎ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﺇﻥ اﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﻛﻔﺮ اﻟﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺬﻧﺐ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ، ﺃﻭ اﻵﺧﺮ ﺇﻥ ﺻﺪﻕ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﻛﺬا ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﺸﺮاﺡ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺋﻨﺎ.
ﻭﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﻄﻴﺒﻲ: ﻷﻧﻪ ﺇﺫا ﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻪ: ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺻﺪﻕ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻜﻔﺮ اﻟﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻣﻘﺘﻀﺎﻫﺎ، ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺬﺏ ﻭاﻋﺘﻘﺪ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺩﻳﻦ اﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺭﺟﻌﺖ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ. ﻭﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ: ﻫﺬا اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﻤﺎ ﻋﺪﻩ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﻩ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺮاﺩ، ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺃﻫﻞ اﻟﺤﻖ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﺮ اﻟﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻌﺎﺻﻲ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭاﻟﺰﻧﺎ، ﻭﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻷﺧﻴﻪ: ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ اﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺩﻳﻦ اﻹﺳﻼﻡ، ﻭﺇﺫا ﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎﻩ ﻓﻘﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺄﻭﻳﻞ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ: ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﻞ ﻟﺬﻟﻚ، ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﻫﺬا ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﺑﺎء ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ: ﺑﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺃﻱ: ﺭﺟﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ اﻟﻜﻔﺮ، ﻭﺛﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ: ﺃﻥ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺭﺟﻌﺖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻧﻘﻴﻀﺘﻪ ﻭﻣﻌﺼﻴﺔ ﺗﻜﻔﻴﺮﻩ. ﻭﺛﺎﻟﺜﻬﺎ: ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺨﻮاﺭﺝ اﻟﻤﻜﻔﺮﻳﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻨﻴﻦ ﻭﻫﺬا ﺿﻌﻴﻒ؛ ﻷﻥ اﻟﻤﺬﻫﺐ اﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ اﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ اﻷﻛﺜﺮﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ اﻟﺨﻮاﺭﺝ ﻛﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ اﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻻ ﺗﻜﻔﺮ. ﻗﻠﺖ: ﻭﻫﺬا ﻓﻲ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺣﻖ اﻟﺮاﻓﻀﺔ اﻟﺨﺎﺭﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻨﺎ، ﻓﺈﻧﻬﻢ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪﻭﻥ ﻛﻔﺮ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﺼﺤﺎﺑﺔ، ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻫﻞ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭاﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﺔ، ﻓﻬﻢ ﻛﻔﺮﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﺟﻤﺎﻉ ﺑﻼ ﻧﺰاﻉ. ﻗﺎﻝ: ﻭﺧﺎﻣﺴﻬﺎ: ﻓﻘﺪ ﺭﺟﻊ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺗﻜﻔﻴﺮﻩ ﻭﻟﻴﺲ اﻟﺮاﺟﻊ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ اﻟﻜﻔﺮ، ﺑﻞ ﻛﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ، ﻗﺎﻝ: ﻷﻥ ﻛﻔﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻜﻔﺮﻩ ﺇﻻ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﺑﻄﻼﻥ ﺩﻳﻦ اﻹﺳﻼﻡ، ﻭﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﻄﻴﺒﻲ: ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ اﻟﻮﺟﻮﻩ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻣﺤﻤﻮﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻞ: (ﻣﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ) ﻭﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﺎﻣﻊ اﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ: «ﺇﺫا ﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻷﺧﻴﻪ: ﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻓﺮ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺑﺎء ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ» . ﺭﻭاﻩ اﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﻫﺮﻳﺮﺓ، ﻭﺭﻭاﻩ ﺃﺣﻤﺪ ﻭاﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ اﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮﻭ.

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