Saturday, April 13, 2024
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Nikaah over Skype or other virtual platforms

Fatwaa ID: 062


AsSalaamu Alaikum

A 42 years old divorced lady in Canada reverted to Islam. She has two sons one is about 20 years old who has no intentions to revert to Islam. The second one is a minor who lives with his dad. Her whole family has rejected her conversion. She is isolated and struggling in this situation. I’m a married man and offered to marry her to support her financially and in all other matters. I will announce this marriage to my whole family after our Nikah.

We both live in different countries. I live in Saudi Arabia and she is in Canada. Canadian law doesn’t allow second marriage. And therefore the Imams of local Masjids only perform Nikah after the marriage license from the city hall. Saudi Arabian law is lengthy and strict but I will submit the documents for legal permission. Our intention is to live in a full contracted marriage and in my city. Meanwhile, I can go and visit her every now and again as I have an associate business firm in Canada.

I would like to marry her online using skype or other permissible method so that I can get in touch with her and talk to her for further planning. She has no one there as her Wali or witness and I don’t know anyone in her city who could be her agent. I have talked to a law firm in Pakistan who claim that they use online skype Nikah within Sharia using Hanafi Madhab method.

I wrote to you in detail and I would kindly request for your guidance in this matter. How I can make Shari Nikah with her and if I can use the services of this firm who will give us attested Nikahnama from Pakistan. May Allah reward you for guiding us onto the right way of doing things.


In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh.

A nikaah takes place with the eejaab (proposal) of either of the potential spouses and the qabool (acceptance) from the other potential spouse in the physical presence of two adult male or one male and two female witnesses in the same gathering[1]. The condition of physical presence is not fulfilled in a skype marriage[2].  Both parties are in different locations and the observers do not serve as shaahids (Shar’ee witnesses) of the eejaab and qabool in one place.

Alternatively, one party may appoint someone on the other end as their representative to propose or accept the proposal on their behalf in the presence of two witnesses.

In the enquired situation, the lady in reference from Canada may appoint a friend of yours in Saudi Arabia as her representative to accept your proposal on her behalf in the presence of two male or one male and two female witnesses. The marriage will be valid in this procedure. Her representative will be her wakeel. Accordingly, the eejaab and qabool will be in the presence of two witnesses on one sitting, thus fulfilling the condition of shahaadah (physical witnessing) of the eejaab and qabool.

And Allaah Ta’aala Knows Best.
Muajul I. Chowdhury
Student, Darul Iftaa
Astoria, New York, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.


وصل اللهم وسلم وبارك على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وصحبه أجمعين

[1] بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 232)

(وأما) الذي يرجع إلى مكان العقد فهو اتحاد المجلس إذا كان العاقدان حاضرين وهو أن يكون الإيجاب والقبول في مجلس واحد حتى لو اختلف المجلس لا ينعقد النكاح، بأن كانا حاضرين فأوجب أحدهما فقام الآخر عن المجلس قبل القبول، أو اشتغل بعمل يوجب اختلاف المجلس، لا ينعقد؛ لأن انعقاده عبارة عن ارتباط أحد الشطرين بالآخر، فكان القياس وجودهما في مكان واحد، إلا أن اعتبار ذلك يؤدي إلى سد باب العقود؛ فجعل المجلس جامعا للشطرين حكما مع تفرقهما حقيقة للضرورة، والضرورة تندفع عند اتحاد المجلس، فإذا اختلف تفرق الشطرين حقيقة وحكما فلا ينتظم الركن………………………
فأما إذا كان أحدهما غائبا؛ لم ينعقد حتى لو قالت امرأة بحضرة شاهدين: زوجت نفسي من فلان وهو غائب فبلغه الخبر فقال: قبلت أو قال رجل بحضرة شاهدين: تزوجت فلانة وهي غائبة فبلغها الخبر فقالت: زوجت نفسي منه لم يجز، وإن كان القبول بحضرة ذينك الشاهدين.

وهذا قول أبي حنيفة ومحمد وقال أبو يوسف: ينعقد ويتوقف على إجازة الغائب.

حاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (3/ 14)

(قوله: اتحاد المجلس) قال في البحر: فلو اختلف المجلس لم ينعقد

[2] Contemporary Fatawa by Mufti Taqi Uthmani p.132

فتاوى دار العلوم زكريا (3/ 558)


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