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Passed away before qurbaani

Fatwaa ID: 1405

Question:
As-Salamualikum
If a person bought his wajib qurbani animal and passed away before the day of Eid, can the animal still be sacrificed on behalf of the deceased, or does the animal become part of the estate?

If the animal can not be sacrificed on behalf of the deceased, what should one do if the deceased was part of a share in a 7-share animal?

Answer:
In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh.

  1. If a person purchased a Qurbaani animal but passed away before the days of ‘Eid, then that animal will become part of his estate. The animal may still be sacrificed on behalf of the deceased provided that all the heirs willingly agree to it.
  2. If the person had purchased a share of an animal (1/7th of a cow or camel), then it will be necessary to seek the permission of all the heirs. If permission is not sought, then the qurbaani of the other shareholders will be invalid.

And Allaah Ta’aala knows best.
Mufti Muajul I. Chowdhury
Darul Iftaa New York
https://askthemufti.us/

12/1/1444 AH – 07/04/2023 CE | AMG1-3211

وصل اللهم وسلم وبارك على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وصحبه أجمعين


البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق (8/202)
ﻗﺎﻝ – ﺭﺣﻤﻪ اﻟﻠﻪ -: (ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺣﺪ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ، ﻭﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﻮﺭﺛﺔ: اﺫﺑﺤﻮا ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻨﻜﻢ ﺻﺢ، ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ اﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﻧﺼﺮاﻧﻴﺎ) ﻭﻣﺮﻳﺪ اﻟﻠﺤﻢ ﻟﻢ ﺗﺠﺰ ﻋﻦ ﻭاﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ، ﻭﻭﺟﻪ اﻟﻔﺮﻕ ﺃﻥ اﻟﺒﻘﺮ ﺗﺠﻮﺯ ﻋﻦ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﻗﺼﺪ اﻟﻜﻞ اﻟﻘﺮﺑﺔ، ﻭاﺧﺘﻼﻑ اﻟﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻀﺮ ﻛﺎﻟﻘﺮاﻥ ﻭاﻟﻤﺘﻌﺔ ﻭاﻷﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﻹﻳﺠﺎﺩ اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻭﻫﻮ اﻟﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻫﺬا اﻟﺸﺮﻁ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻷﻭﻝ ﻷﻥ اﻷﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻐﻴﺮ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﻗﺮﺑﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ – ﺻﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ – ﺿﺤﻰ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ ﻭﻟﻢ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ اﻟﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﺟﻪ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻷﻥ اﻟﻨﺼﺮاﻧﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻮ اﺷﺘﺮﻙ اﺛﻨﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻘﺮﺓ، ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﻴﺮ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻓﻲ اﻷﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻮاﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺳﻬﻢ ﻭﻧﺼﻒ، ﻭاﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻓﻲ اﻷﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﻭاﻷﺻﺢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﻷﻥ اﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﻳﺼﻴﺮ ﻗﺮﺑﺔ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﺘﺒﻊ ﻟﻐﻴﺮﻩ.

البناية شرح الهداية (12/49)
ﻣ: (ﻗﺎﻝ: ﻭﺇﺫا اﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﺳﺒﻌﺔ ﺑﻘﺮﺓ ﻟﻴﻀﺤﻮا ﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻨﺤﺮ، ﻭﻗﺎﻟﺖ اﻟﻮﺭﺛﺔ: اﺫﺑﺤﻮﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﺟﺰﺃﻫﻢ) ﺷ: ﺃﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﺖ ﻭﺭﺛﺔ اﻟﻤﻴﺖ: اﺫﺑﺤﻮا اﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﻴﺖ ﻭﻋﻨﻜﻢ ﺃﺟﺰﺃﻫﻢ ﺫﻟﻚ.

الدر المختار والرد المحتار (6/326)
در: (ﻭﺇﻥ) (ﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﺣﺪ اﻟﺴﺒﻌﺔ) اﻟﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺪﻧﺔ (ﻭﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﻮﺭﺛﺔ اﺫﺑﺤﻮا ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻋﻨﻜﻢ) (ﺻﺢ) ﻋﻦ اﻟﻜﻞ اﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧﺎ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ اﻟﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻞ، ﻭﻟﻮ ﺫﺑﺤﻮﻫﺎ ﺑﻼ ﺇﺫﻥ اﻟﻮﺭﺛﺔ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺠﺰﻫﻢ ﻷﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻗﺮﺑﺔ

رد: (ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﻮﺭﺛﺔ) ﺃﻱ اﻟﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ (ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻟﻘﺼﺪ اﻟﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻞ) ﻫﺬا ﻭﺟﻪ اﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ. ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺪاﺋﻊ ﻷﻥ اﻟﻤﻮﺕ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻨﻊ اﻟﺘﻘﺮﺏ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺼﺪﻕ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﻳﺤﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ، ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺢ «ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ اﻟﻠﻪ – ﺻﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ – ﺿﺤﻰ ﺑﻜﺒﺸﻴﻦ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻤﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻭاﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻤﻦ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺬﺑﺢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﺘﻪ» ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺬﺑﺢ اﻩـ ﻷﻥ ﻟﻪ – ﺻﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ – ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﺗﻘﺎﻧﻲ. ﻗﺎﻝ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ: ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬا ﺇﺫا ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﻢ ﺃﻡ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺿﺤﻰ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﻻﻫﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺻﻐﻴﺮا ﺿﺤﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺃﺑﻮﻩ (ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻷﻥ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻘﻊ ﻗﺮﺑﺔ) ﻓﻜﺬا اﻟﻜﻞ ﻟﻌﺪﻡ اﻟﺘﺠﺰﺅ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺗﻲ.
[ ﻓﺮﻉ] ﻣﻦ ﺿﺤﻰ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻤﻴﺖ ﻳﺼﻨﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﺼﻨﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺼﺪﻕ ﻭاﻷﻛﻞ ﻭاﻷﺟﺮ ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺖ ﻭاﻟﻤﻠﻚ ﻟﻠﺬاﺑﺢ. ﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﺼﺪﺭ: ﻭاﻟﻤﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺇﻥ ﺑﺄﻣﺮ اﻟﻤﻴﺖ ﻻ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻻ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ ﺑﺰاﺯﻳﺔ، ﻭﺳﻴﺬﻛﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻈﻢ (ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺮﻳﻚ اﻟﺴﺘﺔ ﻧﺼﺮاﻧﻴﺎ ﺇﻟﺦ) ﻭﻛﺬا ﺇﺫا ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺪا ﺃﻭ ﻣﺪﺑﺮا ﻳﺮﻳﺪ اﻷﺿﺤﻴﺔ ﻷﻥ ﻧﻴﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﻃﻠﺔ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ ﻫﺬﻩ اﻟﻘﺮﺑﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻧﺼﻴﺒﻪ ﻟﺤﻤﺎ ﻓﻤﻨﻊ اﻟﺠﻮاﺯ ﺃﺻﻼ ﺑﺪاﺋﻊ.

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