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Qisas for killing a kafir

Fatwaa ID: 1392

Question:
Assalamualaikum Shaykh

I would like to ask question

There is a hadith in Sahih Bukhari 9:83:50 that no muslim should be killed in qisas for killing a kafir As the hadith of Sahih Bukhari says in 9:83:50 does it mean if a muslim kills an atheist, Jain, Hindu, Buddhist or Sikh he will not be held accountable as in punished with death sentence for his crime according to shariah?

Answer:
In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh.

At the outset, we wish to highlight that it is impermissible to kill non-Muslims innocently. It is important to learn the context and the fiqh of such Ahaadith. A Muslim who kills a non-Muslim innocently will be tried in legal courts in this world and in the court of Allaah Ta’aala in the Hereafter.

Nevertheless, there are two types of non-Muslims: those with whom the Darul Islam is in war with and those with whom the Darul Islam is not in war with it. The Hadith you refer to is referring to the former type of non-Muslims, also known as harbi non-Muslims. As for the latter type, commonly referred to as the dhimmi non-Muslims, according to the Hanafi legal school, a Muslim will be given the capital punishment for killing such a non-Muslim. While the same punishment may not be applicable for the former type, it does not mean that they will not be held accountable. A trial in court will take place and the judge will preside over the matter with justice.

It should be noted that the above laws are applicable in settings where there is a Darul Islam. In our times, there is no Darul Islam. As such, it will not be permissible to kill or harm any non-Muslim innocently.

And Allaah Ta’aala knows best.
Mufti Muajul I. Chowdhury
Darul Iftaa New York
https://askthemufti.us/

12/12/1444 AH – 06/30/2023 CE | 419

وصل اللهم وسلم وبارك على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وصحبه أجمعين


الإختيار لتعليل المختار (5/27)
المختار: ﻭﻳﻘﺘﻞ اﻟﺤﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﺮ ﻭﺑﺎﻟﻌﺒﺪ، ﻭاﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ، ﻭاﻟﺼﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺒﻴﺮ، ﻭاﻝﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻣﻲ

الإختيار: ﻗﺎﻝ: (ﻭاﻝﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻣﻲ) ﻟﻤﺎ ﺭﻭﻯ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ: «ﺃﻥ اﻟﻨﺒﻲ – ﻋﻠﻴﻪ اﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭاﻟﺴﻼﻡ – ﻗﺎﺩ ﻣﺴﻠﻢا ﺑﺬﻣﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ: ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﺣﻖ ﻣﻦ ﻭﻓﻰ ﺑﺬﻣﺘﻪ» ﻭﻻﺳﺘﻮاﺋﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺼﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﺆﺑﺪﺓ، ﻭﻷﻥ ﻋﺪﻡ اﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺮ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﻋﻘﺪ اﻟﺬﻣﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺨﻔﻰ، ﻭاﻟﻤﺮاﺩ ﺑﻘﻮﻟﻪ – ﻋﻠﻴﻪ اﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭاﻟﺴﻼﻡ -: «ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺮ» اﻟﺤﺮﺑﻲ ; ﻷﻥ اﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﻣﺘﻰ ﺃﻃﻠﻖ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﺮﺑﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﻋﺮﻓﺎ ﻓﻴﻨﺼﺮﻑ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻘﺎ ﺑﻴﻦ اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺜﻴﻦ.
(ﻭﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞاﻥ) ﻳﻌﻨﻲ اﻝﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭاﻟﺬﻣﻲ.
(ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﺄﻣﻦ) ﻟﻌﺪﻡ اﻟﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﻘﻮﻥ اﻟﺪﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺘﺄﺑﻴﺪ ﻭﺣﺮاﺑﻪ ﻳﻮﺟﺐ ﺇﺑﺎﺣﺔ ﺩﻣﻪ، ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺰﻡ اﻟﻌﻮﺩ ﻭاﻟﻤﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ. ﻭﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﺑﻪ اﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭا ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻬﺪ ﻭﺻﺎﺭ ﻛﺎﻟﺬﻣﻲ ﻭﺟﻮاﺑﻪ ﻣﺮ.
(ﻭﻳﻘﺘﻞ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺄﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﺄﻣﻦ) ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻭاﺓ. ﻭﻗﻴﻞ: ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ، ﻭﻫﻮ اﻻﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻥ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ اﻟﻤﺒﻴﺢ.

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق (8/337)
ﻗﺎﻝ – ﺭﺣﻤﻪ اﻟﻠﻪ – (ﻭاﻝﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻣﻲ) ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ اﻝﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻣﻲ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ اﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ: ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻤﺎ ﺃﺧﺮﺟﻪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ اﻟﻠﻪ – ﺻﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ – ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ «ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺫﻭ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ» اﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻟﻨﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﻮﻧﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ اﻟﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﻭﻳﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ، ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺑﺈﻁﻻﻗﻪ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﻜﺪﺭ «ﺃﻥ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ اﻟﻠﻪ – ﺻﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ – ﺃﺗﻲ ﺑﺮﺟﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻝﻣﺴﻠﻢﻳﻦ ﻗﺪ ﻗﺘﻞ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪا ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻞ اﻟﺬﻣﺔ ﻓﺄﻣﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻀﺮﺏ ﻋﻨﻘﻪ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ﺃﻧﺎ ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻭاﻓﻰ ﺑﺬﻣﺘﻪ» ﻭاﻟﻘﺼﺎﺹ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ اﻟﻌﺼﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﻧﻈﺮا ﺇﻟﻰ اﻟﺪاﺭ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ؛ ﻭﻷﻥ ﺷﺮﻁ اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻴﻒ اﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻠﻒ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻻ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻠﻒ ﺑﻪ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺪﻓﻊ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ اﻟﻪﻻﻛ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺤﺮﻡ اﻟﺘﻌﺮﺽ ﻭﻻ ﻧﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ اﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻣﺒﻴﺢ ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺑﻞ ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺤﺮاﺏ ﺃﻻ ﺗﺮﻯ ﺃﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺎﺗﻞ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺤﻞ ﻗﺘﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﻟﺸﻴﺦ اﻟﻔﺎﻧﻲ، ﻭﻗﺪ اﻧﺪﻓﻊ اﻟﺤﺮاﺏ ﺑﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﺬﻣﺔ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺼﻮﻣﺎ ﺑﻻ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ؛ ﻭﻟﻬﺬا ﻳﻘﺘﻞ اﻟﺬﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻣﻲ، ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﻤﺘﻪ ﺧﻠﻞ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻗﺘﻞ اﻟﺬﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻣﻲ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺄﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺘﺄﻣﻦ ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻲ – ﺭﺿﻲ اﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻨﻪ – ﺇﻧﻤﺎ ﺑﺬﻟﻮا اﻟﺠﺰﻳﺔ ﻟﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻣﺎﺅﻫﻢ ﻛﺪﻣﺎﺋﻨﺎ ﻭﺃﻣﻮاﻟﻬﻢ ﻛﺄﻣﻮاﻟﻨﺎ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻌﺼﻮﻣﺔ ﺑﻼ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﻛﺎﻝﻣﺴﻠﻢ؛ ﻭﻟﻬﺬا ﻳﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺴﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﺎﻝ اﻟﺬﻣﻲ، ﻭﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﻤﺘﻪ ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺮﻗﺔ ﻣﺎﻝ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺄﻣﻦ؛ ﻷﻥ اﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﺒﻊ ﻟﻠﻨﻔﺲ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ اﻟﻤﺎﻝ ﺃﻫﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ، ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺑﺴﺮﻗﺘﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺘﻞ ﺑﻘﺘﻠﻪ؛ ﻷﻥ ﺃﻣﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﺲ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺎﻝ.

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