Tuesday, October 4, 2022
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THE MUT’AH OF THE SHI’AHS

Fatwaa ID: 027

Question:

My question is regarding muttaah (temporary marriage) concept in Shia.

Question 1- Is it valid to go for muttaah in Islam?

Question 2- Can Shia male and Sunni female go for muttah?

Question 3- If any Sunni female and Shia male had muttah then will it be called zina? If it is zina then what sunni female has to do to seek forgiveness from Allah?

Question 4- After completion of muttaah period, Can Sunni female marry Sunni male?

I hope that i will get answers as soon as possible and in the light of Quran and hadith

Answer:

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh.

  1. At the outset, mut’ah (temporary marriage) is not permissible. It is a major sin and is in essence zinaa. Consider the following Ahaadith:

عن عبد الله والحسن ابني محمد بن علي، عن أبيهما، عن علي بن أبي طالب، أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن متعة النساء…. زمن خيبر[1]

Translation: Sayyiduna ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (Radhiyallaahu ‘anh) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) forbade from mut’ah (marriages) with women at the occasion of Khaybar. (Tirmidhi)

أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نَهَى عَنْهَا فِي حَجَّةِ الْوَدَاعِ[2]

Translation: “Indeed, Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) reiterated the prohibition of it (nikaah mut’ah) in the Farewell Hajj.” (Abu Dawood)

 It is important to understand that the mut’ah marriages that were found in the era of Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) were legitimate marriages and the conditions and regulations of a normal matrimony were found therein. This is not the case today with the Shi’ah mut’ah.  We list hereunder some fundamental differences between a valid nikaah and the mut’ah practiced by the Shi’ahs:

NikaahMut’ah
Intended to be lifelongIntended to be for a short period, even for half hour[3]
Two witnesses required for validity of nikaahNo witnesses required[4]
Permission of wali is required according to the majorityPermission of wali is not necessary
Financial responsibility and housing (nafaqah and suknaa) is on the husbandMan bears no responsibility, even in a case where he impregnates the lady[5]
Wife is entitled to inheritance after the husband’s demiseLady is not entitled to any inheritance[6]
Nikaah is terminated by a valid divorceMut’ah terminates automatically upon termination of fixed time.
‘Iddah after divorceNo ‘iddah after fixed time finishes[7]. A woman may engage in mut’ah with many men in one single night (mut’ah dawriyyah)[8]
  • It is haraam to engage in mut’ah. Both parties will be sinful and their intimacy will be regarded to be zinaa.
  • If a person engages in mut’ah, it is zinaa. He/she should make sincere tawbah and istighfaar. The scholars have stated that for the validity of tawbah (repentance), three factors must be found :
  • to abandon the sin
  • to have remorse and regret over having committing the sin
  • to make a firm intention to not commit the sin again

Moreover, one should seek forgiveness from Allaah Ta’aala (istighfaar) daily for the sin in reference and for all sins in general. Rasulullaah (Sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam), despite being sinless, would seek forgiveness a hundred times daily. When repenting and seeking forgiveness, one should have full hope in Allaah Ta’aala that He will shower upon him/her with His infinite mercy and compassion and pardon his/her sins. 

  • After committing the grave sin of fornication disguised in the form of mut’ah and having made sincere tawbah, it will be permissible for one to marry a Sunni provided she waits the ‘iddah period. 

And Allaah Ta’aala Knows Best.
Muajul I. Chowdhury
Student, Darul Iftaa
Astoria, New York, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

04/11/2019

وصل اللهم وسلم وبارك على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وصحبه أجمعين


[1]  سنن الترمذي (2/ 421)

1121 – حدثنا ابن أبي عمر، قال: حدثنا سفيان، عن الزهري، عن عبد الله، والحسن، ابني محمد بن علي، عن أبيهما، عن علي بن أبي طالب، أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن متعة النساء، وعن لحوم الحمر الأهلية زمن خيبر.

وفي الباب عن سبرة الجهني، وأبي هريرة.

حديث علي حديث حسن صحيح، والعمل على هذا عند أهل العلم من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، وغيرهم وإنما روي عن ابن عباس شيء من الرخصة في المتعة، ثم رجع عن قوله حيث أخبر عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم.

وأمر أكثر أهل العلم على تحريم المتعة، وهو قول الثوري، وابن المبارك، والشافعي، وأحمد، وإسحاق.

سنن الترمذي (2/ 421)

1122 – حدثنا محمود بن غيلان، قال: حدثنا سفيان بن عقبة، أخو قبيصة بن عقبة، قال: حدثنا سفيان الثوري، عن موسى بن عبيدة، عن محمد بن كعب، عن ابن عباس قال: إنما كانت المتعة في أول الإسلام، كان الرجل يقدم البلدة ليس له بها معرفة فيتزوج المرأة بقدر ما يرى أنه يقيم فتحفظ له متاعه، وتصلح له شيئه، حتى إذا نزلت الآية: {إلا على أزواجهم أو ما ملكت أيمانهم}، قال ابن عباس: فكل فرج سوى هذين فهو حرام.

[2]  سنن أبي داود (2/ 226)

2072 – حدثنا مسدد بن مسرهد، حدثنا عبد الوارث، عن إسماعيل بن أمية، عن الزهري، قال: كنا عند عمر بن عبد العزيز، فتذاكرنا متعة النساء، فقال له رجل: يقال له ربيع بن سبرة: أشهد على أبي أنه حدث أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم «نهى عنها في حجة الوداع»

سنن أبي داود (2/ 227)

2073 – حدثنا محمد بن يحيى بن فارس، حدثنا عبد الرزاق، أخبرنا معمر، عن الزهري، عن ربيع بن سبرة، عن أبيه، أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم «حرم متعة النساء»

[3] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 455)

[4] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 451)

[5] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 457)

[6] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 455)

[7] تهذيب الأحكام (شيعي) (5/ 456)

[8] تحذير المسلمين للقاضي نور الله شوستاري الشيعي (ص. 302)

تحفة إثنى عشرية (ص. 403-406)

تحفة الوهاب (1/ 137)

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__________________
Disclaimer

Darul Iftaa New York answers questions on issues pertaining to Shari’ah. These questions and answers are placed for public view on askthemufti.us for educational purposes. The rulings given here are based on the questions posed and should be read in conjunction with the questions. Many answers are unique to a particular scenario and cannot be taken as a basis to establish a ruling in another situation. 

Darul Iftaa New York bears no responsibility with regard to its answers being used out of their intended contexts, nor with regard to any loss or damage that may be caused by acting on its answers or not doing so.

References and links to other websites should not be taken as an endorsement of all contents of those websites. 

Answers may not be used as evidence in any court of law without prior written consent of Darul Iftaa New York.