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Written nikaah and talaaq

Fatwaa ID: 1716

Question:
Assalamualykum mufti saab. Is nikah valid if a bride is forced to sign her agreement, though she is unwilling and is Talaaq valid if a man is forced to do so and did so unwillingly pressurized by parents.

Clarification:
A girl is getting married this week. She doesn’t want to say verbally but just wants to sign her agreement but she was told they need to hear her words and that if she was forced to sign her nikah would not be valid. In this case is saying verbally better than signing.
2) And a man was forced by his second wifes relatives to divorce his first wife so he signed the talaaq papers. Now he wants to get back to his wife. But was told that signing once is like giving 3 talaaq at a time.

Clarification:
1)She says voice purdah. She does not want to speak in from of nonmehram
2) He did not say it. Signed the talaaq papera and sent to his first wife and the second wifes relatives.

Clarification:
By force i mean pressurized by the new wife’s parents. They were not ready to give the girl until he showed the talaaq papers.

And the girl is ready to sign her nikah agreement. Only she wants to take care her voice is not being heard by non mehrams as she says that’s taqwa. But her family says your nikah is valid only if you say verbally. Is she right in refusing to say or the parents insist on saying verbally is right?

Clarification:
Force just by words. Like a family peer pressure No torture or blackmail or anything else like that. If refused the outcome is just their familys displeasure.

Answer:
In the Name of Allaah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salaamu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullaahi wa-barakaatuh.

We take note of the details of your queries. The answers are as follows:

  1. In principle, the exchange of the eejab and qabool in a nikaah of individuals who are present and able to speak must be verbal and audible. It will not be permissible to suffice on merely signing the nikaah contract. The nikaah will not take place. In the enquired situation, should the bride wish to get married, she must verbally and audibly accept the proposal. The officiant, the groom and the two witnesses must clearly hear her acceptance.
    The bride’s arguments are baseless and hold no merit. The voice of a woman is not ‘awrah. It is not taqwaa nor hayaa to remain silent where Shari’ah requires you to speak. That is rather defiance, ignorance and foolishness. Shari’ah defines taqwaa. A person’s incorrect understanding of an issue does not define taqwaa.
  2. We understand that the person was not forced or threatened in reality as you have initially claimed. He was merely peer pressured with words and the family’s displeasure to issue a written talaaq and he complied. There was no genuine fear of harm or danger on him. Talaaq issued in writing is valid. Accordingly, the talaaq in the enquired situation was valid.
    One written talaaq is equivalent to one verbal talaaq. If he wrote one talaaq, then only one talaaq will take place. If he wrote three talaaqs, then three talaaqs will take place. One written talaaq does not equate to three as misinformed. In the enquired situation, if he issued only one talaaq in writing, then he may reconcile with her. The exact procedure will depend on the type of talaaq issued.

And Allaah Ta’aala knows best.
Mufti Muajul I. Chowdhury
Darul Iftaa New York
https://askthemufti.us/

02/15/1445 AH – 09/01/2023 CE | AML1-8266

وصل اللهم وسلم وبارك على سيدنا محمد وعلى ءاله وصحبه أجمعين


درر الحكام شرح غرر الأحكام (1/327)
ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲء ﻻﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺯﻭﺟﻴﻨﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﻓﻜﺘﺒﺖ اﻟﻤﺮﺃﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ اﻟﺸﻲء ﻋﻘﺒﻪ ﺯﻭﺟﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻣﻨﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ، ﻛﺬا ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﺮاﺝ اﻟﺪﺭاﻳﺔ………
(ﻭﻳﺸﺘﺮﻁ ﺳﻤﺎﻉ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻔﻆ اﻵﺧﺮ) ؛ ﺇﺫ ﻟﻮﻻﻫ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﺮﺿﺎ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ اﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ، ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﻓﻼ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻤﺎﻉ اﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺓ

مجمع الأنهر في شرح ملتقى الأبحر (1/317)
(ﻭﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ) ﺃﻱ ﻳﺤﺼﻞ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﻨﻜﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ (ﺑﺈﻳﺠﺎﺏ) ﻓﻲ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﻭاﻹﻳﺠﺎﺏ ﺷﺮﻋﺎ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺣﺪ اﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪﻳﻦ ﺃﻭﻻ ﺭﺝﻻ، ﺃﻭ اﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﻪ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻳﺜﺒﺖ اﻟﺠﻮاﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻵﺧﺮ ﺑﻨﻌﻢ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻭاﻟﺒﺎء ﻟﻠﻢﻻﺑﺴﺔ (ﻭﻗﺒﻮﻝ) ﻫﻮ ﻟﻔﻆ ﺻﺪﺭ ﻋﻦ اﻵﺧﺮ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻟﻮ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻣﺚﻻ ﻻﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﺯﻭﺟﻨﻲ ﻧﻔﺴﻚ ﻓﻜﺘﺒﺖ ﺗﺤﺘﻪ ﺯﻭﺟﺖ ﻧﻔﺴﻲ ﻣﻨﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻃﻲ ﻭﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ اﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﻣﺎ اﺗﺼﻞ ﺑﺎﻹﻳﺠﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺫﻛﺮ اﻟﻤﻬﺮ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻟﻮ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ ﻻ ﻳﺼﺢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﺘﺢ

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق (3/90)
ﻭﻗﻴﺪ اﻟﻤﺼﻨﻒ اﻧﻌﻘﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻔﻆ؛ ﻷﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻠﻮ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺗﺰﻭﺟﺘﻚ ﻓﻜﺘﺒﺖ ﻗﺒﻠﺖ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ.

الفتاوى الهندية (1/298)
ولا ينعقد بالكتابة من الحاضرين. ولو كتب تزوجتك فكتبت قبلت لم ينعقد هكذا في النهر الفائق

الدر المختار (3/12)
(ﻓﻼ ﻳﻨﻌﻘﺪ) ﺑﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻛﻘﺒﺾ ﻣﻬﺮ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺘﻌﺎﻁ ﻭﻻ ﺑﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺑﻞ ﻏﺎﺋﺐ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﺇﻋﻼﻡ اﻟﺸﻬﻮﺩ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺑﻠﻔﻆ اﻷﻣﺮ ﻓﻴﺘﻮﻟﻰ اﻟﻄﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﻓﺘﺢ

المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني (3/ 276)
وفي «فتاوى أهل سمرقند» : إذا أكره الرجل بالحبس والضرب على أن يكتب طلاق امرأته فكتب فلانة بنت فلان طالق لا تطلق لأن الكتاب من الغائب جعل بمنزلة الخطاب من الحاضر باعتبار الحاجة، ولا حاجة ههنا حيث احتيج إلى الضرب والله أعلم.

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق (3/ 264)
لو أكره على أن يكتب طلاق امرأته فكتب لا تطلق لأن الكتابة أقيمت مقام العبارة باعتبار الحاجة ولا حاجة هنا كذا في الخانية، وفي البزازية أكره على طلاقها فكتب فلانة بنت فلان طالق لم يقع اهـ.

الفتاوى التاتارخانية (3/ 380)
وفي الظهيرية: رجل أكره بالضرب والحبس على أن يكتب طلاق امرأته فكتب فلانة بنت فلانة امرأته طالق، وفي الحاوي: ولم يعبر بلسانه، لا تطلق.

فتاوى قاضيخان (1/ 234)
رجل أكره بالضرب والحبس على أن يكتب طلاق امرأته فلانة بنت فلان ابن فلان فكتب امرأته فلانة بنت فلان بن فلان طالق لا تطلق امرأته لأن الكابة أقيمت مقالم العبارة باعتبار الحاجة ولا حاجة ههنا

الفتاوى الهندية (8/ 365)
رجل أكره بالضرب والحبس على أن يكتب طلاق امرأته فلانة بنت فلان بن فلان فكتب امرأته فلانة بنت فلان بن فلان طالق لا تطلق امرأته كذا في فتاوى قاضي خان .

حاشية ابن عابدين (3/ 236)
فإقرار المكره بغيره لا يصح أيضا كما لو أقر بعتق أو نكاح أو رجعة أو فيء أو عفو عن دم عمد أو بعبده أنه ابنه أو جاريته أنها أم ولده كما نص عليه الحاكم في الكافي. هذا، وفي البحر أن المراد الإكراه على التلفظ بالطلاق، فلو أكره على أن يكتب طلاق امرأته فكتب لا تطلق لأن الكتابة أقيمت مقام العبارة باعتبار الحاجة ولا حاجة هنا، كذا في الخانية، ولو أقر بالطلاق كاذبا أو هازلا وقع قضاء لا ديانة. اهـ.

غمز عيون البصائر في شرح الأشباه والنظائر (6/ 455)
ففي مجمع الفتاوى نقلا عن الخانية أكره بالضرب والحبس على أن يكتب طلاق امرأته فكتب فلانة بنت فلانة طالق لا تطلق لأن الكتاب من الغائب جعل كالخطاب من الحاضر فلا حاجة ههنا حيث احتيج إلى الضرب والحبس .

جامع الفتاوى للحميدي – العبادات – تحقيق (ص: 3)
وفي البزازية: لو أكره بالضرب والحبس على أن يكتب طلاق امرأته، فكتب فلانة بنت فلان طالق لا يقع؛ لأن الكتابة كالخطاب باعتبار الحاجة ولا حاجة ههنا.

امداد المفتين (2/ 634)

فتاوى دار العلوم زكريا (4/ 177)

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